Kuten te tässä vaiheessa varmasti jo tiedätte, olen itse vannoutunut indeksisijoittaja enkä harrasta suoraa osakepoimintaa juuri ollenkaan. Siitä huolimatta perusteet on hyvä olla hanskassa, sillä osakkeisiinhan se indeksikin sijoittaa.
Jakson aikana käydään läpi seuraavat neljä tunnuslukua, jotka ovat tuttuja myös sijoitussanaston puolelta;
Revenue = company sales – sale taxes
Revenue is the amount of sales of a company’s products or services less VAT. Value added tax (i.e. VAT) is deducted because it is not the company’s own money but is paid to the taxpayer.
Turnover tells you how much the company’s products or services have been sold, ie how well the company’s supply has been sold. However, turnover does not tell whether a company has made a profit or a loss, but rather a result of the company.
EBIT = revenue – expenses
Operating profit is the company’s revenue less all expenses. Examples of costs may be the materials needed to make the product or the salaries paid to staff. If the company’s result is positive, we talk about operating profit, and if it is negative, about operating loss.
The net result, on the other hand, is the amount that remains “below the line” in the income statement. The net result is obtained by deducting financial expenses (even interest payable on debts) and taxes from the operating result. Of this amount, the company may, if it so wishes, distribute a dividend to shareholders.
EPS = a number that tells you how much the company has earned per share
EPS is an abbreviation for Earnings Per Share and means earnings (i.e. profit or loss) made by a listed company per share. Translated, EPS is (quite logically) earnings per share.
EPS is calculated by dividing the listed company’s result by the number of shares in the listed company.
Example: The result of a listed company is EUR 1,000 and there are 100 shares. In this case, EPS is 1000/100 = 10, which means that the company has made a profit of 10 euros for each of its shares.
EPS is thus dependent on the number of shares, which means that EPS itself does not say anything about the company’s performance.
P/E ratio = price to earnings
The P/E ratio, price to earnings helps to assess how much investors are willing to pay for a company’s stock.
If the P / E ratio is high, investors believe the company can increase its earnings a lot in the future. For example: If a company has a P / E of 50, it means that investors are willing to pay € 50 for every euro the company